Database Management Basics

Database management is the process for managing data that supports the company’s business operations. It includes data storage and distribution to application programs and users and then modifying it if necessary and monitoring changes to the data and preventing the data from becoming corrupted by unexpected failures. It is a part of the informational infrastructure of a business which supports decision-making, corporate growth, and compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They developed into information management systems (IMS), which allowed large amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of reasons. From calculating inventory to aiding complicated financial accounting functions, and human resource functions.

A database is a set of tables that arrange data in accordance with the specific scheme, for example one-to many relationships. It uses primary key to identify records and permits cross-references among tables. Each table contains a number of fields, referred to as attributes, that represent facts about the entities that comprise the data. Relational models, developed by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM, are the most widely used type of database in the present. This model is based upon normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It also makes it easier to update data without the need to modify various databases.

Most DBMSs can support multiple types of databases, offering internal and external levels of organization. The internal level focuses on costs, scalability, and other operational concerns including the layout of the database’s physical storage. The external level is how the database is displayed in user interfaces and other applications. It can include a combination of different external views (based on different data models) and may include virtual tables that are constructed from generic data to improve performance.

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